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Sorbent Injection Systems

Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) and Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) technology are usually installed either before or after the air preheater. Dry sorbents can be injected to remove targeted pollutants, including SO2, SO3, HCI and mercury, allowing for customised regulatory compliance strategies.

We uniquely utilise CFD as a tool to optimise the design of the injection system and evaluate a wide variety of injection options to reduce overall CAPEX and OPEX for the customer.


CFD predictions illustrate the improvements gained by changing lance injection configuration to achieve reductions for the same input, and to achieve a more uniform conversion of SO3. In this case, SO3 improvements from 61 to 77% were achieved for a DSI system on a 450MW unit.


CFD model to determine injection locations and number of injections to obtain the best coverage of sorbent downstream before airheater inlet.

In order to optimise a sorbent injection system, a CFD model is used as a cost-effective tool to assist in the design of the system and lance configuration. CFD models provide detailed information on flue gas flow, flue gas temperature, sorbent dispersion in duct, location of reaction, and optimisation of lance locations and positioning for maximum sorbent dispersion. The enhanced dispersion yields better sorbent utilisation, resulting in higher reduction capabilities and lower sorbent consumption.

Ammegen has significant modelling experience and capability in the design and optimisation of DSI and Activated Carbon Injection ACI) technology for removing pollutants from fluegas:

  • Hydrated lime + SO3
  • Hydrated lime + HCl/SO2
  • Trona + HCl/SO2
  • Limestone + SO2
  • Activated carbon + Hg/HgCl2

An advanced CFD model provides ‘real-life’ predictions, including not only the mixing and flow-related output that a conventional CFD can provide, but also gas species concentration and reduction predictions.